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Luxor Temple Luxor Temple
image © 2004

The temple is dedicated to the triad of AmunWho is that deity?, MutWho is that deity? and KhonsuWho is that deity?. The temple is planned by 18th dynasty King Amenhotep III (also known as Amenhotpe or Amenophis in Greek) and was largely added by Ramesses II.

As in many large temples, Ptolemies and Romans contributed to this one. The temple was once surrounded by Roman fortifications of which few parts only remain.

Image 1
Image 2

The courtyard is linked to the 'avenue of sphinxesWhat does it mean?' that once connected between the temple of Luxor and Karnak temple.

The entrance is flanked by four statues of Ramesses II of original 6 statues that once stood. There was also a pair of red-granite obelisksWhat does it mean?. Only one stands to the moment. The other one was gifted by Mohamed Ali to France and it now stands at the Place de la Concorde in Paris.

The pylon, work of Ramesses II, has depictions describe Ramesses II victories over the HittitesWhat does it mean? in the great battle of Kadesh. The pylon opens into the court of Ramesses II.

The court is surrounded by two rows of columns with papyrusWhat does it mean?-bud capitals and has huge statues of Ramesses (See Image 1). From inside the court, the mosque of Abul Haggag can be seen (See Image 2). This mosque was built in the 19th century in dedication to a 13th century sheikhWhat does it mean?. It has his tomb.

Image 3
Image 4

Then comes the great colonnadeWhat does it mean? of Amenhotep III whose entrance is flanked by colossiWhat does it mean? of Ramesses II. The colonnade that was originally covered with limestone slabs has 14 papyrus columns (See Image 3). The reliefs here are the work of Tutankhamun and Horemheb. This takes you to the solar court of Amenhotep III (See Old Photo 1). The court has double rows of papyrus columns with bud capitals on the east and the west sides. The northern rows are destroyed.
The hypostyleWhat does it mean? hall to the south has 4 rows of 8 columns each (See Lithograph 1).

Beyond is the Roman chapel dedicated to Roman emperors. On the sides are chapels dedicated to Khons and Mut and an offering chapel with four columns ahead from the Roman chapel. This takes you to the sanctuary built by Amenhotep and a chapel added by Alexander the Great. The walls of the chapel feature reliefs of Alexander as he presents offerings. Next is the birth room which bears description of Amenhotep's divinity conception and how Amenhotep became god's son.

Lithograph 1
Lithograph 2

Old Photo 1
Old Photo 2

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