In Macedonia, a young man called Alexander succeeded his murdered
father Philip II. He was then a 20-year-old young man.
Alexander the Great launched a war against Persia. He met the Persians
led by Darius III at Issus where he won a great battle.
Now all the way to Egypt was open for him. So he marched his army
to Pelusium were the Persian satrap surrendered.
Alexander the Great
He then arrived at Memphis
and was cordially welcomed. Actually the Egyptians regarded him as
a savior from the cruelty of the Persians. It's where he was crowned
as a Pharaoh in Memphis. Moreover, the Egyptians considered him a
divine being or God's son.
Alexander the Great headed north and in a
place near Rhakotis he planned for the future city that bore his name:
Alexandria, the first to hold Alexander's name, was never built
in Alexander's life. Later it would become the new capital of Egypt
and the cultural threshold of the Mediterranean nations.
For many centuries after its founding, Alexandria shed light over
the humanity, as a cradle of science, trade, culture, philosophy,
medicine and policy.
Alexander then headed to Siwa
Oasis where he was greeted by Amun
priests and given the title of son of Amun. Afterwards, he left to
Memphis and there he managed to form the administration that was to
rule Egypt. He carried out restoration plans to the buildings that
were devastated by the Persians. And it was from there that he planned
for his Asian conquest.
Leaving rulers in Egypt, Alexander left to his successful campaigns
to form a great empire.
Unfortunately he died of fever in Babylon. He was at the age of
38 when he died.
Alexander's death was a surprise that resulted into a complicated
situation. This is because Alexander didn't set administrative rules,
as he was busy enough with his military campaigns. And of course
he didn't leave a legitimate heir.
It was Perdiccas, a senior general of Alexander, who was the de facto
regent. A group of generals, known as the diadochi
(the followers) contended each other over the post motivated by their
Perdiccas, as a result, called for a meeting among those diadochi.
The result was the division of Alexander's empire among his generals.
Despite the compromise, wars erupted between them in a race to annex
more lands to their kingdoms.
Ptolemy I, the then-satrap of Egypt took over Egypt
declaring it as his monarchy.
Ptolemy secured his rule eventually after he annexed Palestine and
lower Syria to his kingdom. Thus the new empire of the Ptolemies started.