After the death of the legitimate
heir to the throne, the illegitimate son of Lathyrus, Ptolemy XII
Neos Dionysos Auletes, ascended in 80 BC.
To complete the royal couple he married his sister Cleopatra V Tryphaena.
At the same time a younger brother of him was declared as king of
Now the Roman power was increasing to the extent that the issue
of Auletes' rightfulness to the power was stirred up in Rome. Rome
debated whether it should annex Egypt for that reason or not.
In 58 BC and as a result of people's hatred for Auletes because
of his brutality and the harsh taxes he imposed, he was expelled
Berenice IV, the eldest daughter of Auletes, declared herself the
sole regent of Egypt. She then married Seleucus Kybiosaktes and
had him strangled few days after the marriage. So she married Archelaus
and they both ruled for 4 years. During this period Auletes was
attempting to get the support of the Roman senate.
After paying off Julius Caesar, famous Roman statesman, and a Syrian
proconsul, Auletes finally received the support he needed represented
by the Roman recognition of him as a king and providing him with
a backing Roman army.
Finally Auletes returned in Egypt in 55 BC after eliminating Archelaus,
his stepson. The first thing he did was to execute his daughter.
Then he ruled Egypt for another 4 years till his death with the
support of Roman protecting forces.
Auletes left 2 sons; Ptolemy
XIII, Ptolemy XIV, and 3 daughter: Arsinoe IV, Cleopatra VI
and the famous Cleopatra
VII. Cleopatra was the eldest so she ascended the throne short
time after the death of her father in 51 BC.