ruled (1892 - 1914)
Abbas succeeded his father, Tawfik,
as a Khedive
when he was only 17. Contrary to his father, Abbas showed nationalistic
tendency and had a desire to lessen the influence of the British in
Sir Evelyn Barring, who now
became Lord Cromer, resumed his attempt to dominate Egypt's political
Abbas inaugurated his reign by dismissing the pro-British prime minister
and appointing a nationalist in his position but he was later forced
by Lord Cromer to appoint Riyadh Pasha
following a controversy.
Abbas sympathized with the nationalist movement
and had contacts with Mustafa Kamel, a charismatic nationalist lawyer,
who adopted the issue of Egypt' independence.
The Khedive even supported nationalist figures financially and sent
many of them to Europe. His nationalist tendency and his encouragement
for those figures were meant to offset his powerlessness with the
Nevertheless, his attempts collided with Cromer's plans and the latter
eventually gained ascendancy over the Khedive.
When Abbas himself found the popularity of the nationalists rising
at his own expense, he began disengaging himself.
In 1895, and under pressures from Cromer, Mustafa Fahmy was appointed
as prime minister.
In 1896, British forces launched a military
campaign on Sudan and in 1898 they defeated the radical Mahdist movement
in Sudan. An Anglo-Egyptian condominium was signed in 1899 to grant
both parties a joint control on Sudan and a titular authority for
the Khedive over the province. On the other hand, Cromer had an absolute
power in Egypt. He abolished the corvée system imposed on peasants.
Under his control, the country became financially solvent mainly because
of the cotton revenues. However, he discouraged industrialization
and higher education to the advantage of the British
occupation, which transformed Egypt to a source for raw materials
who led Mahdist movement in Sudan
For that reason, the Egyptian government directed its attention towards
agrarian and irrigation projects.
In 1902, the Nile Barrage at Asyut
and the Aswan
Dam were opened.
Thanks to cotton exports, the economy began recovering and a real
estate boom took part, which transformed cities of Cairo
to models of their European counterparts.
In 1904, the Entente Cordial agreement was concluded between Britain
and France. The agreement purported France's relinquishment of any
whatsoever claims in Egypt. The next year Abbas issued a decree, recognizing
Britain's special position in Egypt.
In 1906, Dinshway incident happened. Peasants beat British officers
after they accidentally killed a woman during their shooting trip.
When fleeing, a British officer died of sunstroke. The British prepared
a tribunal, in which they tried the Egyptian peasants. Some were executed
and others were flogged. The villagers were forced to watch the public
implementation of the sentences.
The brutality of the incident provoked the national feeling against
the Britons and incited Mustafa Kamel, the nationalist charismatic
figure, to launch a media campaign against the British occupation.
Sir Eldon Gorst replaced Cromer, who was already approaching retirement,
as a consul general.
Gorst was more sympathetic to the aspirations of the Egyptians. As
an Arabic language speaker, Gorst made good relations with the Khedive
and expressed readiness to meet much of the nationalistic demands.
Farid, successor of Mustafa Kamel
In 1907, Mustafa Kamel founded the Nationalist Party and in 1908.
He died of tuberculosis and was succeeded by Mohamed Farid. The same
year, Boutros Ghali, a Copt,
formed a new government.
Then the Egyptian University was opened by prince Fuad, later King
Fuad, and was named after him.
A number of parties were established in that atmosphere. In 1910 prime
minister Boutros Ghali was assassinated by a nationalist after Ghali
the extension of Suez
Canal concession before a government session.
British Consul General
Meanwhile, Gorst's policy -which was at odds with many British- brought
about his resignation in 1911.
Kitchener replaced Gorst as a British agent
and consul general. Kitchener, who previously served as a commander-in-chief
and a sirdar,
introduced a number of restrictions over the authorities of the Khedive
but he also introduced a new legislative assembly. This marked a new
parliamentary life in Egypt.
In 1914, and after an assassination attempt, Abbas traveled to Istanbul
while the World War I broke out. Britain immediately declared Egypt
as a protectorate, deposed Khedive Abbas II, and appointed instead
of him his uncle, Hussein Kamel, under the title