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Mohamed Ali Dynasty
Abbas II
ruled (1892 - 1914)
Abbas II

Abbas succeeded his father, Tawfik, as a KhediveWhat does it mean? when he was only 17. Contrary to his father, Abbas showed nationalistic tendency and had a desire to lessen the influence of the British in the country.
Sir Evelyn Barring, who now became Lord Cromer, resumed his attempt to dominate Egypt's political life.

Mustafa Kamel
Mustafa Kamel
Abbas inaugurated his reign by dismissing the pro-British prime minister and appointing a nationalist in his position but he was later forced by Lord Cromer to appoint Riyadh PashaWhat does it mean? following a controversy.

Abbas sympathized with the nationalist movement and had contacts with Mustafa Kamel, a charismatic nationalist lawyer, who adopted the issue of Egypt' independence.
The Khedive even supported nationalist figures financially and sent many of them to Europe. His nationalist tendency and his encouragement for those figures were meant to offset his powerlessness with the industrial British.

Nevertheless, his attempts collided with Cromer's plans and the latter eventually gained ascendancy over the Khedive.
When Abbas himself found the popularity of the nationalists rising at his own expense, he began disengaging himself.
In 1895, and under pressures from Cromer, Mustafa Fahmy was appointed as prime minister.

El-Mahdi
El-Mahdi who led Mahdist movement in Sudan
In 1896, British forces launched a military campaign on Sudan and in 1898 they defeated the radical Mahdist movement in Sudan. An Anglo-Egyptian condominium was signed in 1899 to grant both parties a joint control on Sudan and a titular authority for the Khedive over the province. On the other hand, Cromer had an absolute power in Egypt. He abolished the corvée system imposed on peasants. Under his control, the country became financially solvent mainly because of the cotton revenues. However, he discouraged industrialization and higher education to the advantage of the British occupation, which transformed Egypt to a source for raw materials for Britain.

For that reason, the Egyptian government directed its attention towards agrarian and irrigation projects.
In 1902, the Nile Barrage at Asyut and the Aswan Dam were opened.
Thanks to cotton exports, the economy began recovering and a real estate boom took part, which transformed cities of Cairo and Alexandria to models of their European counterparts.

Lord Cromer
Lord Cromer
In 1904, the Entente Cordial agreement was concluded between Britain and France. The agreement purported France's relinquishment of any whatsoever claims in Egypt. The next year Abbas issued a decree, recognizing Britain's special position in Egypt.

In 1906, Dinshway incident happened. Peasants beat British officers after they accidentally killed a woman during their shooting trip. When fleeing, a British officer died of sunstroke. The British prepared a tribunal, in which they tried the Egyptian peasants. Some were executed and others were flogged. The villagers were forced to watch the public implementation of the sentences.
The brutality of the incident provoked the national feeling against the Britons and incited Mustafa Kamel, the nationalist charismatic figure, to launch a media campaign against the British occupation.

Sir Eldon Gorst replaced Cromer, who was already approaching retirement, as a consul general.

Mohamed Farid
Mohamed Farid, successor of Mustafa Kamel
Gorst was more sympathetic to the aspirations of the Egyptians. As an Arabic language speaker, Gorst made good relations with the Khedive and expressed readiness to meet much of the nationalistic demands.
In 1907, Mustafa Kamel founded the Nationalist Party and in 1908. He died of tuberculosis and was succeeded by Mohamed Farid. The same year, Boutros Ghali, a Copt, formed a new government.
Then the Egyptian University was opened by prince Fuad, later King Fuad, and was named after him.

A number of parties were established in that atmosphere. In 1910 prime minister Boutros Ghali was assassinated by a nationalist after Ghali debated
Kitchener, British Consul General
Kitchener, British Consul General
the extension of Suez Canal concession before a government session.
Meanwhile, Gorst's policy -which was at odds with many British- brought about his resignation in 1911.

Kitchener replaced Gorst as a British agent and consul general. Kitchener, who previously served as a commander-in-chief and a sirdarWhat does it mean?, introduced a number of restrictions over the authorities of the Khedive but he also introduced a new legislative assembly. This marked a new parliamentary life in Egypt.

In 1914, and after an assassination attempt, Abbas traveled to Istanbul while the World War I broke out. Britain immediately declared Egypt as a protectorate, deposed Khedive Abbas II, and appointed instead of him his uncle, Hussein Kamel, under the title of Sultan.

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