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Mohamed Ali Dynasty
Farouk
ruled (1936 - 1952)
Farouk

King Farouk succeeded his father, King Fuad, after his death in 1936. Few weeks later, general elections took place and Al-Wafd Party won with a landslide majority; so Al-Nahhas PashaWhat does it mean?, head of Al-Wafd, formed the first government in King Farouk's tenure.

The same year an agreement was concluded between Egypt and Britain. The agreement limited the presence of British troops to the Suez Canal zone. It obliged Egypt to help Britain at the times of war. Britain was required to help Egypt join the League of Nations and work to end the Capitulations system that dates to the Ottoman era. The law was exempting foreigners from being tried before Egyptian courts and was even excluding them from paying taxes. The agreement left unsettled the issue of Sudan. In 1937 Egypt joined the League of Nations as an independent state and the Capitulations was abolished.

On the other hand, a big dispute arose inside Al-Wafd party. This ended up in a breakaway of two of its prominent figures, Ahmed Maher Pasha and Nokrashi Pasha. They both formed the new Saadist Party in 1938.

The next year, World War II broke out and Britain began utilizing all available sources to serve the war. As provided by agreements, Egypt assisted Britain with the required materials despite its official position of neutrality.
During the war, the king was appointing ineffective governments, which brought nothing but instability in the country. But the British wanted to see a more popular and effective government that could help the British forces in the war. On 4 February 1942, British ambassador Sir Miles Lampson surrounded Abdin palace -the royal residence- with tanks and gave the king the choice of assigning Al-Nahhas Pasha to form a new government or to resign. Farouk capitulated and asked Al-Nahhas to be the next premier. This had a bad effect on Al-Wafd Party as a national party, and its popularity began declining. In the same time, Egypt saw an economic boom as a result of the immediate emigration of Turks after the eruption of the war. Those left their properties to Egyptians. Also the British occupation forces employed many Egyptians.

In 1944, Farouk dismissed Al-Nahhas Pasha and asked Ahmed Maher to form the government and in early 1945, the parliament -encouraged by Maher- voted to declare war on Germany and its allies. As a result Ahmed Maher was assassinated by an Axis sympathizer.
Al-Nokrashi formed the government after Maher and under the sponsorship of Egypt, the Arab League was founded in March.

In the aftermath of the war, Egypt saw a wave of civil disturbances and a political instability. An attempt was made by Egypt to revise the 1936 Anglo-Egyptian treaty.
In 1947, the British troops withdrew again to the Suez Canal zone. The next year, Al-Nokrashi imposed martial laws and declared war on Israel as a reaction on its establishment earlier. Egypt tragically suffered a crushing defeat.

Al-Nokrashi's crackdown on fundamentalists ended up with his assassination in December 1947.
The public feeling was not better; the resentment over the war defeat increased and a secret political force was formed. The group, which called itself the Free Officers, comprised young officers graduated from the Military Academy. Those had a feeling of antagonism towards the government, particularly because of the defeat from Israel. They secretly planned for a coup d'état.

In 1950, elections were held and Al-Wafd party returned to power under Al-Nahhas Pasha, the same year that Gamal Abdel Nasser was elected head of Free Officers' Executive.
In 1951, and after the marathon negotiations with the British government failed, Al-Nahhas Pasha unilaterally declared the abrogation of the 1936 Anglo-Egyptian treaty.

Meanwhile, the Free Officers intensified their meetings and Mohamed Naguib was elected president of the Free Officers Club. In early 1952 British forces attacked Ismailia police headquarters. The next day on 26 January 1952, Cairo was burnt as demonstrators targeted foreign companies.

King Farouk proved his weakness and inability to deal with the crisis. The government resigned and a number of ineffective governments followed.
By that time, the Free Officers -masterminded by Gamal Abdel Nasser- decided to hasten their plans for a coup and determined 26 July for it, and on that date they took over key positions under the titular army leadership of General Mohamed Naguib, declaring a coup d'état. Farouk realized the British won't help him and so he abdicated in favor of his infant son, Prince Ahmed Fuad II, on July 26th. The king was allowed to safely leave Egypt.
With the representation of the Free Officers, a Regency Council was formed for the infant king.

A year later, the monarchy was abolished and Egypt was declared a republic.
Farouk with his sisters
The young prince Farouk with his sisters
Farouk with his family
Farouk, the last king of Egypt with his family

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