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Mohamed Ali Dynasty
ruled (1917 - 1936)

Fuad ascended the throne after the death of his brother, Hussein Kamel, in 1917.
Near the end of World War I, the national movement mounted in aspiration to restore political rights and end the British protectorate on Egypt.
The war ended in 11 November 1918. US President Wilson's postwar Fourteen Points declaration gave hope to nationalists in ridding the occupation. The declaration recognized the self-determination rights for any nation in the world.

Saad Zagloul
Saad Zagloul
In 1918, a group of nationalists formed a delegation (Wafd) under the leadership of Saad Zaghloul, a former education minister, to present the case of Egypt's independence to London and eventually to the Versailles peace conference. The delegation met with Sir Reginald Wingate, the then British High Commissioner.

Despite Wingate's recommendations to his government to meet the demands of the nationalists, the British authority refused to meet Zaghloul and his comrades. The pretext for this stance was that the delegation is not representing the Egyptian people. Consequently, Zaghloul and his comrades launched a campaign to collect signatures required to petition the British government.

Allenby, British High Commissioner
Allenby, British High Commissioner
However, people felt Britain was having no intention to end its protectorate and in early 1919 the masses agitated against the British occupiers. As a result, the British deported Zaghloul and his comrades to Malta, hoping this would be enough to calm the people. But on the contrary, the people regarded that as a provocation and the March 1919 revolution broke out. It left several British soldiers killed and caused more violence. The rebellion was vigorously put down and Britain dispatched the Milner mission to investigate the causes of the unrest.
Wingate's sympathy to the Egyptians led to his dismissal and General Allenby replaced him as a Special High Commissioner.

The Delegation Party ('Al-Wafd Party' in Arabic) was finally established and Zaghloul himself was released from exile in April and was granted a permission to proceed to Paris.
Zaghloul urged his supporters in Egypt to boycott Milner's mission but he finally agreed to meet it personally in 1920 when he was traveling to London to present his case.
The next year, Milner report was published. It recommended the termination of the protectorate with the condition of preserving Britain's special position in Egypt.

Curzon, British official who negotiated with Egypt over the British occupation
Zaghloul returned to Egypt in April 1921 and launched a campaign against the Egyptian government. The following talks between the Egyptian premier and the British government, the Adli-Curzon talks, failed. The street violence erupted again and Zaghloul was deported for the second time at the end of 1921.

In 1922, and under pressures of Allenby, Britain issued the 1922 Declaration, terminating the protectorate and granting Egypt a limited independence. The title of Fuad was changed from Sultan to king in April and in 1923 the new constitution was promulgated. Saad Zaghloul was released from exile and was allowed to return to Egypt.
The first free elections based on the 1923 constitution took place and Zaghloul achieved an overwhelming victory. Zaghloul's government resigned later over the murder of British sirdarWhat does it mean? in Sudan, Sir Lee Stack, on 19 November 1924.

In 1925, Lord George Lloyd replaced Allenby as High Commissioner and the following year Zaghloul won the elections again but was prevented from forming the government. He died in 1927 and was succeeded by Mustafa El-Nahhas PashaWhat does it mean?.

El-Nahhas Pacha
Nahhas, Egyptian Prime Minister
The following years saw a power struggle between each of the king, Al-Wafd party and the British.
Every time an election is held, Al-Wafd party wins, but the king was dissolving the government to appoint one of his own. In 1929 El-Nahhas became a prime minister for the second time after a crushing victory. He was dismissed by the king the next year, and a new constitution was promulgated to give the king broader authorities. A new electoral law was also introduced. The new changes came to the dismay of the Egyptian people and therefore the 1931 elections were boycotted.

Under pressure from the government, the old constitution was reinstated in 1935. The then ailing king couldn't oppose the move while the British were looking anxiously for a treaty with the Egyptians, especially with the change of the situations in the world. In April 1936, King Fuad died and was succeeded by his son Farouk.

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