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Mohamed Ali Dynasty
ruled (1879 - 1892)

Tawfik succeeded his father Ismail, who was deposed by the Ottoman sultan, in 1879. The same year saw the presentation of a new constitutional draft by the then premier Sherif PashaWhat does it mean? intended to give more rights to citizens. The draft was rejected, and so Sherif Pasha resigned and was substituted by Riyadh Pasha.

In 1879, the Anglo-French Dual Control was renewed and the Law of liquidation was rendered in the next year. The law divided Egypt's revenues in two parts: part to pay for the debts of the bondholders and the other part for financing the Egyptian administration.

A blend of public and army resentment rose over the barefaced European presence in the government and over new army promotion policies that angered Egyptian army officers in particular.
The War Minister at that time proposed changes in the army to limit the promotion of army officers to senior posts.

Ahmed Orabi, an unsatisfied Egyptian colonel, conducted the army opposition. After gaining popularity and support from army officers, Orabi presented a petition of complaint to Refki Pasha, the War Minister.
Instead of listening to Orabi, Refki Pasha had Orabi arrested but later his regiment freed him.
Tawfik had to dismiss Refki over the crisis and appointed Barudi, a friend to Orabi, in the position.

Orabi marches to Abdeen Palace marches to Abdeen Palace
Orabi marches to Abdeen Palace to present his bids to the Khedive
Since the move didn't bring any change in the state policy, Orabi took his regiment in a near-coup to KhediveWhat does it mean? Tawfik's palace. In front of the palace, Orabi requested the increase in the army force, constitution amendments and a governmental reshuffle.
Khedive Tawfik had to yield to the demands so he replaced Riyadh Pasha by the popular Sherif Pasha as prime minister.

The European powers were watching anxiously the developments in Egypt. In January 1882, Britain and France sent a Joint Note in which they expressed their support for the Khedive and opposed any move that might cripple his powers in a way that could eventually harm the foreign interests.
The note caused nothing but a vehement reaction of the people.
The government fell again and Sherif Pasha was replaced by Barudi as prime minister and Orabi was made a War Minister. By that, Tawfik seemed to have lost control over the national movement that actually began to eclipse him.

A conflict between Orabi and Tawfik forced the latter to finally bid for help from the European powers which were already alarmed by the mounting national movement.
Britain and France decided to interfere by sending their fleets to parade off the coast of Alexandria, where Tawfik was present at that time.
Under the pressure of the foreign fleets anchoring off the coast, sectarian riots broke out between Egyptians and the Greek minority in Alexandria. The riots left a number of deaths.

El-Tal El-Kebir
An imaginary scene of El-Tal El-Kebir battle which resulted into the British invasion of Egypt
On 11 July 1882, the British fleet bombarded Alexandria while French troops rejected the move and withdrew back.
Instantly, Khedive Tawfik, who appeared to be satisfied with the developments, declared Orabi is a rebel. From his side, Orabi declared the Khedive is a traitor and rallied his army for the anticipated invasion of the British troops.

The British army left a unit in Alexandria and sent other units through Suez Canal, which defeated Orabi at the battle of El-Tal El-Kebir on 13 September 1882.

The British Occupation (1882 - 1954 AD):

The next day Cairo fell to the British occupiers, exactly on 14 September 1882. They never left the country except after more than 70 years.
Orabi was charged with sedition provocation and was exiled after he gave himself up.

Lord Dufferin
Lord Dufferin was dispatched to assess the situation in Egypt
The British government dispatched Lord Dufferin to examine the situation in Egypt and make some recommendations.
His report recommended legislative and administrative reforms in addition to continuing the British presence in Egypt. The Dual Control system was annulled and Sir Evelyn Baring, who later became Lord Cromer in 1891, was appointed as a British agent and a consul general in Egypt.
Baring, who placed himself as the de facto ruler of Egypt, focused his interests on financial reforms at least to pay Egypt's foreign debt to other states to keep off other rivals.

Baring succeeded to a great extent in improving the performance of the Egyptian economy, especially with seeing no opposition whether from the helpless Khedive or from the incompetent premiers.
The increase in the cotton exports, and the financial and administrative adjustment caused a relative boom at the end of the century.
Tawfik died in 1892 and was succeeded by his son Abbas II Helmy

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