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Late Period
(664 - 332 BC)
26th Dynasty 27th Dynasty 28th Dynasty
29th Dynasty 30th Dynasty 31st Dynasty
30th Dynasty
(380 - 343 BC)

When Achoris of the 29th dynasty died, his son didn't succeed him, due to the fact that he was ousted by the first king of this dynasty; Nectanebo I (Nakhtnebef) (r. 380 - 362) from Sebennytos.

Nectanebo I
Nectanebo I between
the legs of Horus

image 2004 ©
Persians were still a challenge to Egypt even if the latter had a big strong army supported by Greek soldiers. A Persian army, also supported by Greek troops, arrived in Egypt from the West at Mendes.
The Persian combined forces marched to Memphis but Egyptian army had enough time to recollect its forces. Egyptians then launched a counterattack near Mendes forcing the Persians and their Greek mercenaries to depart. A helping factor for Egyptians was a Nile inundation, which the foreign invading troops are not accustomed to.

Nectanebo's son, Teos (Djedhor) (r. 365 - 360) succeeded him and continued to contend Persia. Despite his patriotic efforts, Egyptians did hate him for his imposition for heavy taxes required to finance the Greek mercenaries.

Teos recruited a big army including Spartan and Athenian mercenaries to fight Persians and marched to Asia using his fleet. Meanwhile, his brother turned against him and toppled him and appointed Nectanebo II (Nakhthoreb) (r. 360 - 343), possible Teos' nephew or grandson, in his place. The deposed king was also abandoned by the foreign mercenaries and he eventually sought refuge at his enemies, the Persians, at Susa.

Nectanebo II had to face internal rifts and unite the Egyptians under his control. He gave close attention to the art at the expense of the alertness of the Egyptian army.
On the other hand, he kept on resisting subsequent attacks of Persians.

Finally at Pelusium at eastern Delta, the Egyptian army, facing the advancing Persians, was defeated. Nectanebo II fled to Upper Egypt and then to NapataWhat does it mean? where he ruled for a mere two years. This marked the fall of the mighty Pharaonic Empire.

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