of the 29th
dynasty died, his son didn't succeed him, due to the fact that
he was ousted by the first king of this dynasty; Nectanebo I (Nakhtnebef)
(r. 380 - 362) from Sebennytos.
Persians were still a challenge to Egypt even if the latter had
a big strong army supported by Greek soldiers. A Persian army, also
supported by Greek troops, arrived in Egypt from the West at Mendes.
Nectanebo I between
the legs of Horus
The Persian combined forces marched to Memphis
but Egyptian army had enough time to recollect its forces. Egyptians
then launched a counterattack near Mendes forcing the Persians and
their Greek mercenaries to depart. A helping factor for Egyptians
was a Nile inundation, which the foreign invading troops are not accustomed
Nectanebo's son, Teos (Djedhor) (r. 365 - 360) succeeded him and
continued to contend Persia. Despite his patriotic efforts, Egyptians
did hate him for his imposition for heavy taxes required to finance
the Greek mercenaries.
Teos recruited a big army including Spartan
and Athenian mercenaries to fight Persians and marched to Asia using
his fleet. Meanwhile, his brother turned against him and toppled him
and appointed Nectanebo II (Nakhthoreb) (r. 360 - 343), possible Teos'
nephew or grandson, in his place. The deposed king was also abandoned
by the foreign mercenaries and he eventually sought refuge at his
enemies, the Persians, at Susa.
Nectanebo II had to face internal rifts and unite the Egyptians
under his control. He gave close attention to the art at the expense
of the alertness of the Egyptian army.
On the other hand, he kept on resisting subsequent attacks of Persians.
Finally at Pelusium at eastern Delta,
the Egyptian army, facing the advancing Persians, was defeated. Nectanebo
II fled to Upper Egypt and then to Napata
where he ruled for a mere two years. This marked the fall of the mighty