(2040 - 1783 BC)
(2040 - 1991 BC)
Montuhotep I (r. 2061 - 2010), son of Theban King Inyotef III, led
his army to conquer the city of Herakleopolis and end the rule of
dynasy and also ending the First
became the capital of Egypt for the first time thenceforth.
Montuhotep I then launched a campaign to preserve the borders, and
thus fought against Libyans in Delta and against Asiatics in the East
and ordered expedition to go to Nubia.
Montuhotep I erected a mortuary temple at the famous Deir
El-Bahari at Luxor at the west bank. His temple is now almost
destroyed. He had his wives and loyal men buried at Deir
El-Bahari. Archeologists found traces of pots and muddy patterns and
other tools and equipments at the site. They have also found 60 bodies
of soldiers, probably died in their battle against Herakleopolitan
statue of Montuhotep
image courtesy of
The Egypt Archive
Montuhotep I is believed to have ruled for nearly half a century during
which he maintained peace and stability whether in north or in south.
He tended to limit the authority of rulers of various regions to cut
the way back to territorial divisions. Thus he paved the way to the
revival of art and architecture once again.
(r. 2010 - 1998) He is the son of Montuhotep I. He ruled for a short
period but cared more about rebuilding the country instead of launching
military campaigns. However, he did sent a famous expedition to Punt
and reestablished trade relations with other nations. He also ordered
quarrying operations at Wadi
He built an unfinished mortuary complex at Deir El-Bahari near his
Montuhotep III (r. 1998 - 1991) ascended as the natural heir. He continued
to send mining expeditions to Wadi Hammamat. Among them was an expedition
sent especially to get the materials needed to make the king's sarcophagus.
In his rule, a vizier
of him called Amenemhat had a big influence to the extent that sometimes
he gained fame more that the king himself.
The dynasty ended in turbulence, while Amenemhat apparently took over
the rule and founded the 12th