Ahmose I (r. 1550 - 1525) expelled the Hyksos
in the last dynasty to establish this one.
He then attacked Nubia
to get it back to the Egyptian kingdom and appointed a ruler there.
Ahmose I reigned for about 25 years during which he succeeded to suppress
the superpowers of the provincial rulers. Some of them coped with
them collaborated with the Hyksos.
He rebuilt destroyed temple and took Thebes
(Luxor) as his capital. Amun
was declared the official god of Egypt during his reign.
Ahmose I married Ahmose Nefertari who bore him his heir, Amenhotep
Ahmose's son Amenhotep I (r. 1525 - 1504) ascended the throne when
his father died.
We knew that he headed campaign aims at securing the borders at
south and settled down when he was sure of the safe condition.
He directed his efforts to the country's internal affairs. As a
result Egypt enjoyed stability and wealth.
Amenhotep ruled for about 20 prosperous years.
Amenhotep I died without a rightful heir and so some problems erupted.
Thutmose I (a.k.a. Thutmosis in Greek) (r. 1504 - 1492), who is
believed to belong to the royal house, ascended the throne and to
legitimize his rule he married princess Ahmose, Ahmose I's daughter.
Thutmose I led brilliant military campaigns to Egypt's southern
borders and to Palestinian and Syrian lands. He reached to the Euphrates
River in Iraq. Thutmose I is one of the earliest kings to build
in the Karnak
temple paving the way for his successors to contribute to its
Thutmose was buried in his tomb at the Valley
of the Kings and his mummy was found in the royal cache of Deir
After his death his son Thutmose II succeeded him. Thutmose II (r.
1492 - 1479) was a son of a secondary royal wife and so to strengthen
his position he had to marry his stepsister queen Hatshepsut.
Thutmose II continued to quash the Nubian rebellions. He also tended
to secure Egypt's eastern borders and copper quarries in Sinai
Peninsula. Thutmose also contributed to the building at the
Karnak temple. He was succeeded by his wife, Queen Hatshepsut. His
mummy was found in cache at Deir
(r. 1973 - 1458) Initially King Thutmose III succeeded his father
Thutmose II but he was too young, so Queen Hatshepsut, his stepmother
appointed herself as his regent.
Just two years after that she simply adopted the royal titles and
drove the young boy away from the throne. She was aided in her rule
by some statesmen, especially by vizier,
Hapuseneb, who was the senior Amun priest at the Karnak and Senmut
(a.k.a. Senenmut), her chief architect and steward, who designed
the famous temple of Deir
After building the temple, Hatshepsut wrote on its reliefs that
she is the daughter of God Amun-Re
and that she was chosen to rule the country. That was part of the
propaganda that she launched to legitimize her seizure of the throne.
She also recorded the expedition which she sent to Punt to get loads
of incense and trees.
She erected the temple of Speos
Artemidos at Menya
and contributed to the great Amun
temple of Karnak. There, she erected a pair of red granite obelisks
of which one still stands. She also built a temple at Medinet
Hatshepsut proved herself as one of the mightiest queens of ancient
Egypt, as the country enjoyed stability and prosperity in her reign.
She tried to neglect her femininity so as to rise to the world of
statesmen. She appeared in masculine figures and was referring to
herself with male pronouns and men titles.
We aren't sure about her fate, whether she died naturally or was
murdered, as some believe, by Thutmose who, might had brought about
her death impelled by his hatred for her. Her mummy was never found.
(r. 1458 - 1425) Thutmose succeeded his stepmother. At his first
years in the reign he seemed to be tolerant of the memory of Hatshepsut.
After strengthening the power he started to deform the reminiscences
of her and also of her aides; He began to demolish her tombs and
remove her name off reliefs.
Thutmose, then, carried out his monarchy royal duties to mark his
character as one of the most influencing Pharaohs of ancient Egypt.
Thutmose was the first to arrange the army; dividing the army into
sections i.e. right and left flanks, and the center. He was also
studying the battle scene before its occurrence. Moreover he was
the first of the Pharaohs to establish what is known as the Egyptian
Empire. He overpowered peoples of neighboring countries and forced
them to pay him tributes.
Hatshepsut actually neglected the Asiatic lands which increased
their greediness to the extent that they organized an anti-Egyptian
sovereignty plot. This was led by Kadesh's prince.
There were also the kingdom of Mitanni which led also some insurrection
and had some influence in the east. Thutmose launched a military
campaign to get back their territories.
He first marched to Gaza and then to a place called Yehem. He wanted
to attack Megiddo, a stronghold of the prince of Kadesh.
At that point, he had 3 possible routes to choose from, 2 straightforward
and the third was through a narrow pass that was more dangerous
His aides had a point to choose easier routes, but he preferred
the third route and mocked their choices, and so the army marched
into the narrow pass.
Thutmose had an indeed clever idea and good viewpoint as actually
his enemies were anticipating the Egyptian army at the easier route.
Thutmose attacked his enemies at a site overlooking Megiddo.
The enemy was in panic and sought refuge inside the city's walls.
The Egyptian army pursued a 7-month siege of the city after which
the city finally felt.
The victorious king returned to Thebes where a great celebration
For several years, Thutmose led about 17 military campaigns to Syrian
territories to quell rebels there. The Egyptian navy was used in
In his 6th campaign Thutmose met his foe, the prince of Kadesh.
Finally the city of Kadesh felt itself.
He also led a war against Mitanni near the river of Euphrates. He
defeated its army and captured the city. Thutmose was also a devoted
builder. He built two temples at Luxor; one of them is just behind
Hatshepsut's temple of Deir El-Bahari. He also built pylons and
a festival hall in the temple of Karnak and contributed to a Medinet
Habu temple built by his stepmother, Hatshepsut.
He was buried in a tomb in the valley of kings, but his mummy was
also found in the royal cache of Deir El-Bahari.
Amenhotep II (r. 1427 - 1401) succeeded his father Thutmose II.
He had a special zeal for sports; he was an athletic and a good
At the beginning of his rule, the Egyptian-controlled territories
were trying to put the new king at test but he led successive campaigns
against Syria and Phoenicia, following his father's footsteps.
The army once again marched as far as the river of Euphrates.
Returning back to Egypt, the triumphant king showed unusual barbarism,
as he was recorded to have tortured his enemies, hanging some of
them alive upside down on the prow of his ship and slaying some
when he arrived home. Amenhotep also added to the temples of his