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Old Kingdom
(2649 - 2150 BC)
3rd Dynasty       5th Dynasty
4th Dynasty       6th Dynasty
4th Dynasty
(2575 - 2465 BC)

King Snefru (a.k.a. Snofru or Soris in Greek) (r. 2575 - 2551) was an innovative military leader.

He sent military punitive campaigns against NubiansWhat does it mean? and Libyans. He forged trade relationships with Mediterranean nations and built a big fleet that he sent to the Syrian and Lebanese coasts to import cedar wood needed for his establishments.

Snefru completed Huni's pyramid at Meidum and erected 2 other pyramids of his own at Dahshur, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid which is considered as the first true pyramid in terms of flawless building. He married Hetepheres, who became mother of King Khufu.

Khufu (r. 2551 - 2528) is the owner of the Great pyramid of Giza, one of the only remaining structures of the Seven Wonders of the WorldWhat does it mean?.
Khufu (Cheops or Suphis I in Greek) married Queen Meritates who gave birth to the soon-to-be-heir Kewab. He also married Queen Henutsen who could be the mother of Prince Khafre. It is believed that Radjedef, Khufu's son, had Kewab, the rightful heir and his brother, killed and overtook the power. Radjedef's rule was short and unremarkable. However he built a small pyramid of his own at AbuWhat does it mean? Rawash.

Khafre (Chephren or Suphis II in Greek) (r. 2520 - 2494) then took over. He erected the second pyramid of Giza as well as SphinxWhat does it mean?. He was renowned for his autocracy, because of which he was hated. He married 3 wives. One of his wives, probably Queen Persenti, bore him Menkaure'.

Menkaure (Mycerinus or Mencheres in Greek) (r. 2490 - 2472) is said to be a devout Pharaoh,
unlike his predecessors who were somewhat considered as tyrants. Menkaure added his own pyramid to his ancestors at Giza plateau. His principal wife, Khamerernebty probably bore him Prince Shepseskaf.
Shepseskaf ruled for about 5 years that featured a discontentment between his priests over his handling of religion. He built a mastaba in southern Saqqara, currently known as Mastabet Fara'oun. The dynasty may have ended by the rule of Queen Khentkawes.

By the end of Shepseskaf's rule at around 2467 BC, the great fourth dynasty ended to carve a landmark in Egypt's ancient history.

image of Snefru ©; Khufu and Khafre courtesy of The Egypt Archive

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