King Snefru (a.k.a.
Snofru or Soris in Greek) (r. 2575 - 2551) was an innovative military
He sent military punitive campaigns against Nubians
and Libyans. He forged trade relationships with Mediterranean nations
and built a big fleet that he sent to the Syrian and Lebanese coasts
to import cedar wood needed for his establishments.
Snefru completed Huni's pyramid at Meidum
and erected 2 other pyramids of his own at Dahshur,
Pyramid and the Red
Pyramid which is considered as the first true pyramid in terms
of flawless building. He married Hetepheres, who became mother of
Khufu (r. 2551 - 2528) is the owner of the Great
pyramid of Giza, one of the only remaining structures of the
Seven Wonders of the World.
Khufu (Cheops or Suphis I in Greek) married Queen Meritates who gave
birth to the soon-to-be-heir Kewab. He also married Queen Henutsen
who could be the mother of Prince Khafre. It is believed that Radjedef,
Khufu's son, had Kewab, the rightful heir and his brother, killed
and overtook the power. Radjedef's rule was short and unremarkable.
However he built a small pyramid of his own at Abu
Khafre (Chephren or Suphis II
in Greek) (r. 2520 - 2494) then took over. He erected the second
pyramid of Giza as well as Sphinx.
He was renowned for his autocracy, because of which he was hated.
He married 3 wives. One of his wives, probably Queen Persenti, bore
Menkaure (Mycerinus or Mencheres in Greek)
(r. 2490 - 2472) is said to be a devout Pharaoh,
unlike his predecessors who were somewhat considered as tyrants. Menkaure
added his own
pyramid to his ancestors at Giza plateau. His principal wife,
Khamerernebty probably bore him Prince Shepseskaf.
Shepseskaf ruled for about 5 years that featured
a discontentment between his priests over his handling of religion.
He built a mastaba in southern Saqqara, currently known as Mastabet
Fara'oun. The dynasty may have ended
by the rule of Queen Khentkawes.
By the end of Shepseskaf's rule at around 2467 BC, the great fourth
dynasty ended to carve a landmark in Egypt's ancient history.