The worshiping of the God Ra
or Re was strengthened in this dynasty. As we can see from the syllable
Re attached to several names of the kings who ruled Egypt in that
During his short rule, Userkaf (a.k.a. Weserkaf)
(r. 2465 - 2458) built a pyramid
attached to a mortuary temple at Saqqara.
He also built a temple for sun god Re at Abu
Ghurab. Historians tend to believe that he established trade with
south Europe, especially Greece, as traces of his name was found there.
Sahure' (r. 2458 - 2446) was the first of
the fifth dynasty to build a pyramid
complex at Abu
Sir. He also erected a Re temple in the same area at Abu
Ghurab. He sent fleets to Syrian coast bringing cedar wood.
He also sent a punitive campaign to fight nomad tribes in Sinai
and another campaign to Nubia
to fight Nubians. His campaign to the Punt (now Somalia or Ethiopia)
brought him ebony, incense and gold. Sahure is believed to have
married queen Khentkawes
who apparently ruled by the 4th
Kakai (r. 2446 - 2426), probably Sahure' s brother, followed his
ancestor's steps in building a tomb complex at Abu
Sir including an unfinished pyramid.
Few are known about the following kings; Shepseskare and Raneferef.
However Raneferef erected a small pyramid at Abu Sir.
Niuserre built a pyramid
for himself at Abu Sir and a solar temple (for Re) at Abu
Ghurab (north of Saqqara). He also fought Libyans and Asiatics.
Menkauhor, according to inscriptions, built a pyramid and a solar
temple. Nonetheless, they were not found.
Djedkare (r. 2388 - 2356) then built a pyramid
complex south of Saqqara. Inscriptions mentioned his mining expedition
Maghara. He is also said to have sent a trade expedition to Punt.
Unas (a.k.a. Wenis) (r. 2356 - 2323) also sent
trade expeditions. A famine struck the country in his reign. He
made a pyramid-tomb
for himself at Saqqara. They found for the first time what they
call the "pyramid texts" (Special prayers and advises
about the afterlife, the texts including magical spells).