Teti (r. 2323 -
2291) erected his pyramidal
complex at Saqqara,
northeast of Userkaf's
pyramid. They found remains of his mummy at his pyramid. He
might have ruled for 12 years before his uncertain death. Iput,
his queen, is the most famous among his wives. Teti's pyramid from
inside is a real piece of art since it comprises magnificent sculptures
describing daily life of ancient Egyptians in the Old
Pepi I (r. 2289 - 2255) is the natural heir of
Teti and his son from Queen Iput.
Bronze statue of Pepi I
courtesy of the Egypt Archive
He married 2 daughters of a senior statesman: Ankhnesmeryre who
bore him Merenre and the other one is Ankhnesmeryre II who bore
him Pepi II. Both of his two sons succeeded him consecutively.
Pepi was also a unique military leader who led Egypt to preserve
its solidarity against invaders.
Asiatics increased their battles against Egyptians from the East to
the extent that they prevented mining expeditions to Sinai.
Weni, a remarkable general of Pepi's army, commanded the army a number
of times in wars against Asiatics. The Egyptian army to Sinai and
Palestine to beat the rebels.
Weni built a tomb for himself in Abydos
in which he describes the victories of the Egyptian army. He narrated
his stories in a form of beautiful poems. He spoke proudly of his
soldiers' behavior, saying that they didn't attack civilians neither
took food of villages they passed by.
Weni investigated a plot by queen Weret-Imtes, Pepi's wife. However
he doesn't disclose details about the outcome of the trial.
Pepi built a number of temples and a pyramid
at Saqqara. In his pyramid they found a basalt-made sarcophagus
contains bone remains.
Merenre (r. 2255 - 2246) succeeded his father
Pepi but ruled Egypt for a short period as he is believed to have
been ill. During his reign Weni was given a higher position as the
governor of upper Egypt. He took over an assignment to cut channels
beside the Nile at Aswan.
Merenre was buried in his pyramid
at Saqqara. They found his well-preserved mummy in the pyramid.
Pepi II (r. 2246 - 2152) succeeded his brother
Merenre in the reign. He was only 6 years old when he held the power.
Harkhuf succeed Weni in leading expeditions
in the south. A story describes Harkhuf's capture for a dancing dwarf.
He then reported to King Pepi II, the child, about his little gift.
Pepi II responded by promising him of rewards if he brought the dwarf
safely to him. Pepi II also ordered the governors of various regions
to take care of, and assist, Harkhuf as he passes by.
The story was recored at Harkhuf's
tomb in Aswan.
When Pepi became older, he sent a senior official
called Pepynakht Hekayib in expeditions to suppress Nubian
rebels. Egyptians were also building ships at the Red Sea coast in
order to launch expeditions to Punt. They used a port called Kuser
of this purpose. Pepynakht was buried in his tomb
Pepi II ruled for 94 years, one of the longest reigns in ancient
As a result of his long rule, the country plunged in turmoil. Pepi
was weak enough to quell strong princes of different regions. Moreover
a famine struck the country and illness spread all over. Gangs appeared
everywhere and people left their homes.
After the death of the king, it was difficult to preserve the unity
of the country. Some historians mention names of kings who said to
have succeeded Pepi II, but nothing is confirmed about this information.
Pepi II was buried at his pyramid
Finally the unrest resulted into the collapse of the dynasty and the
end of the Old Kingdom.