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2nd Intermediate Period
(1783 - 1550 BC)
13th Dynasty 14th Dynasty 15th Dynasty
16th Dynasty 17th Dynasty
13th Dynasty
(1783 - 1640? BC)
Last dynasty's Amenemhat IV wasn't as powerful as his father, consequently the collapse the kingdom began in his era.

Rifts erupted between members of the ruling family who were contending to seize the monarchy. That was happening frequently especially with the large numbers of wives and royal sons.

Auibrehor, a Pharaoh
of the 13th dynasty
image courtesy of
The Egypt Archive
Moreover, provincial rulers rose against the Pharaoh, breaking away with their provinces. That happened when they felt the weakness of the central government.
Foreign enemies of Egyptians became stronger to the extent that they invaded Egypt in this period to mark the first occupation of Egypt in the history.

Little is known about the details of the 13th dynasty and the order of its monarchs. Historians disagreed about determining this unclear period.
At first kings seemed to maintain the stability of the previous dynasty. They ruled from Memphis.

Evidences revealed the names of the kings believed to belong to this dynasty.
Among them are King Neferhotep II, Wegaf, Amenemhat V, Hor, Sobekhotep I, Khendjer, Sobekhotep II and many others.
Some say that the infiltration of the Asiatics actually began in this dynasty in eastern Delta.

In any case, chaos began when successive kings ruled Memphis for short periods of time. That was the proof of weakness to historians. It is said that a number of 60 kings actually ruled in this dynasty. They left us relics in Saqqara and Dahshur.

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