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2nd Intermediate Period
(1783 - 1550 BC)
13th Dynasty 14th Dynasty 15th Dynasty
16th Dynasty 17th Dynasty
15th Dynasty
The HyksosWhat does it mean? at Avaris
(1640? - 1532 BC)
It is the dynasty of the Asiatic invaders, better known as Hyksos or Heka Khaswt that means "rulers of foreign lands" or "Shepherd Kings."
Those Asiatics are believed to be of Semitic origins but some of their names refer to Indo-European origins.

And according to Manetho, Hyksos advanced from the east and succeeded to take over the country without any resistance. They burnt cities, demolished temples, treated people with cruelty and imposed brutal taxes.

Napoleon Bonaparte
Horse Drawn chariots introduced by the Hyksos
image 2004 ©
Hyksos then founded their capital Avaris (near present-day Zagazig).
Despite Hyksos' notoriety, they benefited Egyptians. They brought to Egypt new weapons and introduced the horse-drawn chariots. Thus Egyptians knew horsemanship for the first time. And in agriculture, Hyksos are said to bring the famous traditional Egyptian "ShadoofWhat does it mean?".

Despite their faculty for dominion, Hyksos failed to integrate with Egyptians due to the differences in between them in attributes. After all, Egyptians were still looking to Hyksos as unrighteous foreign invaders.

Hyksos couldn't annex Thebes (Luxor), which was resisting their control. The two rivals saw peaceful eras, however.

Hyksos took SethWho is this deity? as the official god of Avaris. Seth was the god of the deserts as was associated with that are for a long time.

Salitis was the first king of the Hyksos royal house, followed by Yakubher and Khyan. Apepi I (a.k.a. Apophis I in Greek) the next king, ruled contemporaneously with the southern Theban 17th dynasty. In his era, scrimmage started between the two rivals (Hyksos and Thebans). These led to the eventual expulsion of the Hyksos. Apepi II succeeded his father Apepi I.

After Apepi II came Khamudi who might be the same one. Khamudi (r. 1542 - 1532) is believed to have witnessed the fall of the Hyksos Empire.

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