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2nd Intermediate Period
(1783 - 1550 BC)
13th Dynasty 14th Dynasty 15th Dynasty
17th Dynasty 17th Dynasty
17th Dynasty
from Thebes
(1640 - 1550 BC)
In spite of enmity between native Egyptians and the HyksosWhat does it mean?, the two people seemed to witness a sort of cordial relationship in some period. Sources tell us Asiatics were allowed to reach the cataractsWhat does it mean? to forge trade relations.
The line of kings ruling from Thebes (Luxor) ended with Tao I (Senakhtenre) who is thought to be the first contemporaneous king with the 15th and 16th dynasties of the Hyksos. Then comes King Tao II (Sekenenre). He is also called "the brave". He was also contemporary to Hyksos King Apepi (?). Skirmishes between the two dynasties appeared to begin during their reigns.

Napoleon Bonaparte
Skull of Tao II (Sekenenre) with obvious wounds
from war battles which probably killed him
image courtesy of The Ancient Egypt Site
Tao II received a message from Apepi (we don't know which Apepi) telling him to silence the hippopotami in Thebes because it keeps him awake by their continuous roaring. He asked him to do something about it. Since that time, battles erupted. We aren't aware quite well of the heroic rule done by Tao II but his mummy can tell us about his tragic death. The mummy has signs of blows by axes and spears.

His body was embalmed in a hurry probably in a battlefield without the usual care Egyptians used to give to their deceased kings.
Fortunately Kamose (Wadjkheperre) succeeded his father, Tao II, and carried on his holy struggle against the Hyksos.

Kamose (r. 1555 - 1550) gathered his senior staffs and debated the issue, and before them Kamose swore to get rid of the aliens. He was very determined to march despite some peaceful times. Kamose wanted the Egyptian to remember him as "Kamose, the savior of Egypt".

Kamose led his army to continuous wars against Hyksos in Nefrusy (Hermopolis) to landmark his first victory. He is believed to have died during his battles. Once again, Kamose's mummy was poorly embalmed. It crumpled when it was found. Apophis, his Asiatic counterpart died at some time earlier.

Ahmose I, Kamose's brother, succeeded him and adopted the same line.
He also led the war against Memphis and Avaris and the other Hyksos strongholds. Ahmose I (a.k.a. Amosis I) surrounded Avaris for 3 years before its fall.

Due to his bravery, Hyksos had to flee Avaris to the Syrian territory in the east.
Thus, the Hyksos Empire fell to pave the way for Ahmose I to establish the 18th dynasty, the first of the New Kingdom.

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