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3rd Intermediate Period
(1070 - 664 BC)
21st Dynasty 22nd Dynasty 23rd Dynasty
24th Dynasty 25th Dynasty
22nd Dynasty
The Libyan Dynasty
(945 - 712 BC)
During the 19th and 20th dynasty, Egypt was in the spotlight because of it prosperity at that time. Egypt's neighbors; the Libyans were eyeing Egypt. In many years they carried out whether attacks or organized infiltration movements. Egyptians used some other Libyans as mercenaries.

Sheshonq (a.k.a. Shoshenq or Sheshonk) (r. 945 - 924), who descends from Libyan families, became the first Libyan king of Egypt. He lived in Herakleopolis and took Bubastis as his stronghold then he seized Tanis, while the Theban priests fled to the south.

Sheshonq I inaugurated the sequence of the Libyan rulers. He boosted his ascension for the power by a political marriage, to Maatkare, the daughter of his Egyptian predecessor, Psusennes II. (Some sources mention that it was Sheshonq's son, Osorkon, is the one who married Maatkare)
Sheshonq succeeded to unite Egypt under his grip. He had his sons appointed in the state's highest positions.

Sheshonq (also known as Shishak) is associated with a Biblical story. He marched his army to the divided Israeli kingdoms of Judah and Israel and defeated them.
He then returned victorious to Egypt loaded with booties including treasures of King Solomon himself:

"And it came to pass, that in the fifth year of King Rehoboam Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, because they had transgressed against the LORD," (2Chr.12: 2)

Osorkon II
Golden pendant bearing
the name of Osorkon II
image courtesty of
The Egypt Archive

"So Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, and took away the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king's house; he took all: he carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made." (2Chr.12: 9)

Sheshonq recorded his victories on the walls of the temple of AmunWho is this deity? at Thebes and at Karnak court.
Osorkon I (r. 924 - 909) succeeded his father Sheshonq. He maintained the same policy of his father in constructions and building at the city of Bubastis.
He wanted to ensure that the rule in his strong grasps so he appointed his sons in the highest official ranks of the state. Following years showed an inter-familiar struggle for the authority.
The succeeding priests were Sheshonq II, Takelot I, Osorkon II, Takelot II, Sheshonq III, Pami (a.k.a. Pimay), Sheshonq V, Osorkon IV and finally Harsiese who ruled from Thebes (Luxor).

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