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The Republic
Hosni Mubarak
ruled (1981 - present)
Hosni Mubarak

Mubarak is the current president of Egypt. He served actively in the army. He was the chief-commander of the air force during the 1973 war (also called Yom KippurWhat does it mean? War). Actually the successful performance of the air force in that war is accredited to him.
He was promoted as an Air Marshal in 1974. In 1975, President Sadat chose him as his vice-president and he remained as such until Sadat's assasination in 1981. He was also made secretary-general of Sadat's National Democratic Party.

Mubarak was elected president on 13 October 1981. He soon declared his commitment to Sadat's peace path. He also released the political detainees who were imprisoned by Sadat.

In the early years of his rule, Mubarak worked hard to restore severed relations with Arab states and maintain good relations with the United States and the Soviet Union, later Russia.

Domestically, he introduced economic reforms and granted more political and press freedoms to the society. In recent years he also encouraged a privatization scheme planned by the government to reactivate the economy.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, Mubarak was challenged by terrorist attacks launched by fundamentalist groups.

In 1995, Mubarak escaped an assassination attempt in Addis Ababa in Ethiopia, while he was attending an African meeting. In the aftermath of the attack, Mubarak adopted a hard-line position against extremists until he successfully uprooted terrorism.

He also supported and took part in the US-led Gulf war in 1990 against Iraq, which was reaped by the successful liberation of Kuwait.
Also under his rule, Egypt supported and sponsored peace talks between Palestinians and Israelis.

Mubarak also showed moral support for the US anti-terrorism efforts following the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on 11 September 2001.

Mubarak was reelected 3 times by referenda in 1987, 1993 and 1999 with landslide votes supporting him.

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