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List of Rulers of Egypt Throughout History
N.B. Dates of Pharaonic Era is adopted from Baines and Málek, Atlas of Ancient Egypt, Oxford, 1988
Ruler
Ruled
Pharaonic Era
1st Dynasty
Narmer/Menes c. 2920 - ?
Aha ? - ?
Djer ? - ?
Djet (Wadj) ? - ?
Den ? - ?
Anedjib ? - ?
Semerkhet ? - ?
Qa'a ? - ?
2nd Dynasty
Hotepsekhemwy c. 2770 - ?
Reneb ? - ?
Ninetjer ? - ?
Seth-Peribsen ? - ?
Khasekhemwy ? - ?
3rd Dynasty
Sanakhte (Nebka) 2649 - 2630
Djoser (Netjerykhet) 2630 - 2611
Sekhemkhet 2611 - 2603
Khaba 2603 - 2599
Huni 2599 - 2575
4th Dynasty
Snefru 2575 - 2551
Khufu (Cheops) 2551 - 2528
Radjedef (Djedefre) 2528 - 2520
Khafre (Chephren) 2520 - 2494
Menkaure' (Mycerinus) 2490 - 2472
Shepseskaf 2472 - 2467
5th Dynasty
Userkaf 2465 - 2458
Sahure 2458 - 2446
Neferirkare Kakai 2446 - 2426
Shepseskare 2426 - 2419
Raneferef (a.k.a. Neferefre) 2419 - 2416
Niuserre (Ini) 2416 - 2392
Menkauhor 2396 - 2388
Djedkare (Isesi) 2388 - 2356
Wenis (Unas) 2356 - 2323
6th Dynasty
Teti 2323 - 2291
Pepi I (Meryre) 2289 - 2255
Merenre (Nemtyemzaf) 2255 - 2246
Pepi II (Neferkare) 2246 - 2152
7th/8th Dynasty
Numerous ephemeral kings, including Neferkare' 2150 - 2134
9th/10th Dynasty
Several kings called Khety; Merykare' and Ity 2134 - 2040
11th Dynasty
Inyotef I (Sehertawy) 2134 - 2118
Inyotef II (Wahankh) 2118 - 2069
Inyotef III (Nakhtnebtepnefer) 2069 - 2061
Montuhotep I 2061 - 2010
Montuhotep II 2010 - 1998
Montuhotep III 1998 - 1991
12th Dynasty
Amenemhat I (Ammenemes) 1991 - 1962
Senwosret I (Sesostris) 1971 - 1926
Amenemhat II 1929 - 1892
Senwosret II 1897 - 1878
Senwosret III 1878 - 1841?
Amenemhat III 1844 - 1797
Amenemhat IV 1799 - 1787
Nefrusobek (Sobeknefru, Sobekkare) (fem.) 1787 - 1783
13th Dynasty
About 70 kings in chaotic period 1783 - 1640
14th Dynasty
Nehesy ? - ?
15th Dynasty
Salitis (Sheshi) ? - ?
Yakubher ? - ?
Khyan ? - ?
Apepi I (Apophis I) c. 1585 - 1542
Apepi II (Apophis II) ? - ?
Khamudi c. 1542 - 1532
16th Dynasty
Anather ? - ?
Yakobaam ? - ?
17th Dynasty
Inyotef V c. 1640 - 1635
Sobekhemsaf II ? - ?
Inyotef VII (Intef VII) ? - ?
Tao I (Sanakkhtenre) ? - ?
Tao II (Seqenenre) ? - ?
Kamose (Wadjkheperre) c. 1555 - 1550
18th Dynasty
Ahmose I 1550 - 1525
Amenhotep I (a.k.a. Amenophis in Greek) 1525 - 1504
Thutmose I (a.k.a. Thutmosis in Greek) 1504 - 1492
Thutmose II 1492 - 1479
Thutmose III 1479 - 1425
Hatshepsut (fem.) 1473 - 1458
Amenhotep II 1427 - 1401
Thutmose IV 1401 - 1391
Amenhotep III 1391 - 1353
Amenhotep IV Akhenaten 1353 - 1335
Smenkhkare 1335 - 1333
Tutankhamun 1333 - 1323
Ay 1323 - 1319
Horemheb 1319 - 1307
19th Dynasty
Ramesses I 1307 - 1306
Seti I (Sethos I) 1306 - 1290
Ramesses II 1290 - 1224
Merenptah 1224 - 1214
Amenmesses (usurper)  
Seti II(Merenptah) 1214 - 1204
Siptah (Merenptah) 1204 - 1198
Queen Twosret (Tausert) (fem.) 1198 - 1196
20th Dynasty
Setnakht 1196 - 1194
Ramesses III 1194 - 1163
Ramesses IV 1163 - 1156
Ramesses V 1156 - 1151
Ramesses VI 1151 - 1143
Ramesses VII 1143 - 1136
Ramesses VIII 1136 - 1131
Ramesses IX 1131 - 1112
Ramesses X 1112 - 1100
Ramesses XI 1100 - 1070
Thebes Priests
Herihor 1080 - 1074
Piankh 1074 - 1070
Pinedjem I 1070 - 1032
Masaherta 1054 - 1046
Menkheperre 1045 - 992
Nesbanebdjed II 992 - 990
Pinedjem II 990 - 969
Pasebakhaenniut III 969 - 945
21st Dynasty
Smendes I (Nesbanebdjed or Hedjkheperre) 1070 - 1044
Amenemnisu (Neferkare) 1044 - 1040
Psusennes I (Pasebakhaenniut I) 1040 - 992
Amenemope (Meryamun or Amenophthis) 993 - 984
Osorkon the Elder (Osochor) 984 - 978
Siamun 978 - 959
Psusennes II (Pasebakhaenniut II) 959 - 945
22nd Dynasty
Sheshonq I (a.k.a. Shoshenq or Sheshonk) 945 - 924
Osorkon II 924 - 909
Takelot I 909 - ?
Sheshonq II ? - 883
Osorkon III 883 - 855
Takelot II 860 - 835
Sheshonq III 835 - 783
Pami 783 - 773
Sheshonq V 773 - 735
Osorkon V 735 - 712
23rd Dynasty
Pedibastet (Meryamun) 828 - 803
Osorkon IV 777 - 749
Rudamun ? - ?
Iuput (at Leontopolis) ? - ?
Peftjauabastet (Peftjauawybast) (at Herakleopolis) 740 - 725
Nimlot (at Hermopolis) ? - ?
24th Dynasty
Tefnakht (Shepsesre) (at Sais) 724 - 717
Bakenrenef (a.k.a. Bocchoris or Wahkare) 717 - 712
25th Dynasty
Kashta 770 - 750
Piankhi (Piyi) 750 - 712
Shabaka (Neferkare, Sabacon) 712 - 698
Shebitku (Djedkare) 698 - 690
Taharqa 690 - 664
Tanutamun (a.k.a. Tantamani) 664 - 657
26th Dynasty
Psamtik I (a.k.a. Psammetichus I) 664 - 610
Nekau II (Necho II) 610 - 595
Psamtik II 595 - 589
Wahibre (Apries) 589 - 570
Ahmose II (Amasis) 570 - 526
Psamtik III (Psammetichus) 526 - 525
27th Dynasty
Cambyses 525 - 522
Darius I 521 - 486
Xerxes I 486 - 466
Artaxerxes I 465 - 424
Darius II 424 - 404
28th Dynasty
Amyrtaeus 404 - 399
29th Dynasty
Nepherites I (Nefaarud I) 399 - 393
Psammuthis 393
Achoris (Hakor) 393 - 380
Nepherites I 380
30th Dynasty
Nectanebo I (Nakhtnebef) 380 - 362
Teos (Djedhor) 365 - 360
Nectanebo II (Nakhthoreb) 360 - 343
31st Dynasty
Artaxerxes III 343 - 338
Arses 338 - 336
Darius III 335 - 332
Greek Era
Macedonian Era
Alexander the Great 332 - 323
Philip Arrhidaeus 323 - 316
Alexander IV 316 - 304
Ptolemaic Dynasty
Ptolemy I Soter I 304 - 284
Ptolemy II Philadelphus 285 - 246
Ptolemy III Euergetes I 246 - 221
Ptolemy IV Philopator 221 - 205
Ptolemy V Epiphanes I 205 - 180
Ptolemy VI Philometor 180 - 164, 163 - 145
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Physcon) 170 - 163, 145 - 116
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator 145
Cleopatra III (fem.)and Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyrus) 116 - 107
Cleopatra III (fem.)and Ptolemy X Alexander I 107 - 88
Ptolemy IX Soter II 88 - 81
Ptolemy XI Alexander II 80
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) 80 - 58, 55 - 51
Berenice IV (fem.) 58 - 55
Cleopatra VII (fem.) 51 - 30
Ptolemy XIII 51 - 47
Ptolemy XIV 47 - 44
Ptolemy XV Caesarion 44 - 30
Roman Era
Augustus 30 BCE- 14 CE
Tiberius 14 - 37
Gaius (Caligula) 37 - 41
Claudius 41 - 54
Nero 54 - 68
Galba 68 - 69
Otho 69
Vespasian 69 - 79
Titus 79 - 81
Domitian 81 - 96
Nerva 96 - 98
Trajan 98 - 117
Hadrian 117 - 138
Antoninus Pius 138 - 161
Marcus Aurelius 161 - 180
Commodus 180 - 192
Helvius Pertinax 192 - 193
Didius Julianus 193
Septimus Severus 193 - 211
Caracalla 198 - 217
Geta 209 - 212
Macrinus 217 - 218
Elagabalus 218 - 222
Severus Alexander 222 - 235
Gordian III 238 - 244
Philip the Arab 244 - 249
Decius 249 - 251
Gallus and Volusianus 251 - 253
Valerian 253 - 260
Gallienus 253 - 268
Macrianus and Quietus 260 - 261
Aurelian 270 - 275
Probus 276 - 282
Diocletian 284 - 305
Mazimian 286 - 305
Galerius 293 - 311
Valens 314
Byzantine Era
Constantine I the Great 324 - 337
Constantius 337 - 361
Julian the Apostate 361 - 363
Jovian 363 - 364
Valens 364 - 378
Theodosius I 378 - 395
Arcadius 395 - 408
Theodosius II 408 - 450
Marcian 450 - 457
Leo I 457 - 474
Leo II 474
Zeno 474 - 491
Anastasius 491 - 518
Justin I 518 - 527
Justinian the Great 527 - 565
Justin II 565 - 578
Tiberius II 578 - 582
Maurice 582 - 602
Phocas 602 - 610
Heraclius 610 - 641
Islamic Era
Arab conquest and Umayyad Dynasty
Omar Ibn Al-Khattab 641 - 644
Othman Ibn Affan 644 - 656
Ali Ibn Abi Taleb 656 - 661
Muaweya I (Ibn Abi Sofyan) 661 - 680
Yazid I 680 - 683
Muaweya II 683 - 684
Marawan I (Ibn Al-Hakam) 684 - 685
Abdel Malek Ibn Marawans 685 - 705
Al Walid I (Ibn Abdel Malek) 705 - 715
Suleyman Ibn Abdel Malek 715 - 717
Omar Abdel Aziz 717 - 720
Yazid II 720 - 724
Hisham Ibn Abdel Malek 724 - 743
Al Walid II (Ibn Yazid) 743 - 744
Yazid III (Ibn Al-Walid) 744
Ibrahim Ibn Al-Walid 744
Marwan II (Ibn Mohamed) 744 - 750
Abbasid Dynasty
Abul-Abbas Abdullah Al-Saffah 750 - 754
Abu Jaafar Al-Mansour 754 - 775
Mohammed Abu Abd Allah Al-Mahdi 775 - 785
Musa Ibn Al-Mahdi 785 - 785
Harun Al-Rashid 786 - 809
Mohammed Al-Amin 809 - 813
Abdullah Al-Ma'mun 813 - 817
Moussa 817 - 819
Abdullah Al-Ma'mun (restored) 819 - 833
Abu Is-hak Al-Mutasim Billah 833 - 841
Harun Al-Wathek Billah 841 - 847
Jaafar Al-Mutawakkel 847 - 861
Mohammed Al-Muntasser Billah 861 - 862
Ahmed Al-Musta'in 862 - 866
Al-Mutazz Billah 866 - 868
Tulunid Dynasty
Ahmed Ibn Tulun 868 - 884
Abul Jeish Khumaraweih 884 - 896
Abul Asaker Jeish 896
Harun 896 - 904
Shayban 904
Abbasid Dynasty
Abu Mohamed Al-Muktafi Billah 905 - 908
Al-Muqtadir Billah 908 - 932
Abu Mansour Al-Qaher Billah 932 - 934
Abu Al-Abbasi Al-Radi Billah 934 - 935
Ikhshidid Dynasty
Mohammed Ibn Toghj Al-Ikhshid 935 - 946
Abul Qassem Unujur 946 - 961
Abul Hassan Ali 961 - 966
Abul Mesk Kafur 966 - 968
Abul Fawares Ahmed Ben Ali 968 - 969
Fatamid Dynasty
Al-Muizz li Din Allah 969 - 975
Al-Aziz Li Din Allah Nezar Abu Mansour 975 - 996
Al-Hakim Bi Amr Allah Al-Mansour Abu Ali 996 - 1021
Al-Zaher Li A'azaz Din Allah Ali Abul Hassan 1021 - 1035
Al-Mustansir Billah Mo'ed Abu Tamim 1035 - 1094
Al-Mustali Billah Ahmad Ibn Abul Qassem 1094 - 1101
Al-Amer Bi Ahkam Allah Al-Mansour Abu Ali 1101 - 1130
Al-Hafez Li Din Allah Abdel Meguid Abul Maymoun 1130 - 1149
Al-Zafer Bi Amr Allah Ismail Abu Mansour 1149 - 1154
Al-Fa'ez Bi Nasr Allah Eisa Abul Qassem 1154 - 1160
Al-Aded Abdullah Abu Mohamed 1160 - 1171
Ayyubid Dynasty
Al-Nasser Salah Al-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub (Saladin) 1171 - 1193
Al-Aziz Emad Al-Din Abul Fath Othman 1193 - 1198
Al-Mansour Nasser Al-Din 1198 - 1199
Al-Adel I Seif Al-Din 1200 - 1218
Al-Kamel Nasser Al-Din Mohammed 1218 - 1238
Al-Adel II Seif Al-Din 1238 - 1240
Al-Saleh Najm Al-Din Ayyub 1240 - 1249
Al-Mu'azzam Turan Shah 1249 - 1250
Al-Ashraf II Muzaffar Al-Din 1250 - 1253
Bahari Mamluks
Shagaret El-Dorr (fem.) with Al-Muezz Ezz Al-Din Aybak 1250 - 1257
Al-Mansour Nour Al-Din Ali 1257 - 1259
Al-Muzaffar Seif Al-Din Qutuz 1259 - 1260
Al-Zaher Rukn Al-Din Baybars I 1260 - 1277
Al-Saeed Naser Al-Din Baraka Khan 1277 - 1280
Al-Adel Badr Al-Din Salamish 1280
Al-Mansour Seif Al-Din Qalawun 1280 - 1290
Al-Ashraf Salah Al-Din Khalil 1290 - 1294
Al-Nasser Nasser Al-Din Mohamed, 1294 - 1295
Al-Adel Zein Al-Din Kitbugha 1295 - 1297
Al-Mansour Hossam Al-Din Lajin 1297 - 1299
Al-Nasser Nasser Al-Din Mohamed,(restored) 1299 - 1309
Al-Muzaffar Rukn Al-Din Baybars II 1309 - 1310
Al-Nasser Nasser Al-Din Mohamed,(re-restored) 1310 - 1340
Al-Mansour Seif Al-Din Abu Bakr 1340 - 1341
Al-Ashraf Alaa Al-Din Kujuk 1341 - 1342
Al-Nasser Shihab Al-Din Ahmad 1342
Al-Saleh Emad Al-Din Ismail 1342 - 1345
Al-Kamel Seif Al-Din Sha'ban I 1345 - 1346
Al-Muzaffar Seif Al-Din Hajji I 1346 - 1347
Al-Nasser Nasser Al-Din Al-Hasan 1347 - 1351
Al-Saleh Salah Al-Din Saleh 1351 - 1354
Al-Nasser Nasser Al-Din Al-Hasan (restored) 1354 - 1361
Al-Mansour Salah Al-Din Mohammed 1361 - 1363
Al-Ashraf Nasser Al-Din Sha'ban II 1363 - 1376
Al-Mansour Alaa Al-Din Ali 1376 - 1382
Al-Saleh Salah Al-Din Hajji II 1382
Burgi Mamluks
Al-Zaher Seif Al-Din Barquq 1382 - 1389
Hajji II (restored)(from Bahari Mamluks) 1389 - 1390
Barquq (restored) 1390 - 1399
Al-Nasser Nasr Al-Din Faraj 1399 - 1405
Al-Mansour Ezz Al-Din Abdel Aziz 1405
Faraj (restored) 1405 - 1412
Al-Adel Al-Musta'in II 1412
Al-Muayyad Seif Al-Din Shaikh 1412 - 1421
Al-Muzaffar Ahmad 1421
Al-Zaher Seif Al-Din Tatar 1421
Al-Saleh Nasir Al-Din Mohammed 1421 - 1422
Al-Ashraf Seif Al-Din Barsbay 1422 - 1438
Al-Aziz Jamal Al-Din Yusuf 1437 - 1438
Al-Zaher Seif Al-Din Jaqmaq 1438 - 1453
Al-Mansour Fakhr Al-Din Othman 1453
Al-Ashraf Seif Al-Din Inal 1453 - 1461
Al-Muayyad Shihab Al-Din Ahmad 1461
Al-Zaher Seif Al-Din Khushqadam 1461 - 1467
Al-Zaher Seif Al-Din Bilbay 1467 - 1468
Al-Zaher Timurbugha 1468
Al-Ashraf Seif Al-Din Qaitbay 1468 - 1496
Al-Nasser Mohammed 1496 - 1498
Al-Zaher Qunsowah 1498 - 1500
Al-Ashraf Janbalat 1500 - 1501
Al-Adel Tuman Bey I 1501
Al-Ashraf Qunsowah Al-Ghouri 1501 - 1517
Al-Ashraf Tuman Bey II 1517
Ottomans
Selim I, Yavuz (a.k.a The Grim) 1517 - 1520
Suleyman I, Kanuni (a.k.a The Lawgiver or The Magnificent). 1520 - 1566
Selim II, Sarhosh (The Sot). 1566 - 1574
Murad III 1574 - 1595
Mehmed III 1595 - 1603
Ahmed I 1603 - 1617
Mustapha I 1617 - 1618
Othman II 1618 - 1622
Mustapha I (restored) 1622 - 1623
Murad IV 1623 - 1640
Ibrahim I 1640 - 1648
Mehmed IV 1648 - 1687
Suleyman II 1687 - 1691
Ahmed II 1691 - 1695
Mustapha II 1695 - 1703
Ahmed III 1703 - 1730
Mahmud I 1730 - 1754
Othman II 1754 - 1757
Mustapha III 1757 - 1773
Abdul Hamid I 1773 - 1789
Selim III 1789 - 1805
Mohamed Ali Dynasty
Mohammed Ali 1805 - 1848
Ibrahim 1848
Abbas I 1848 - 1854
Said 1854 - 1863
Ismail 1863 - 1879
Tawfik 1879 - 1892
Abbas II Helmy 1892 - 1914
Hussein Kamel 1914 - 1917
Fuad I 1917 - 1936
Farouk 1936 - 1952
Ahmed Fuad 1952 - 1953
The Republic
Mohammed Naguib 1953 - 1954
Gamal Abdel Nasser 1954 - 1970
Anwar El-Sadat 1970 - 1981
Mohamed Hosni Mubarak 1981 - present

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