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A chronology of key events in Egypt's history

3100 (?) - Narmer, unifies Upper and Lower Egypt under his rule, and inaugurates Pharaonic dynasties.

2650 (?) - Djoser builds the first pyramid.

The Pyramids
The Pyramids
2600 (?) - The great pyramid builders.

2184 - Fall of Old Kingdom by the death of Pepi II and the country plunges into the First IntermediateWhat does it mean? Period.

1570 - Ahmose I finishes expulsion of HyksosWhat does it mean?, ends the Second Intermediate Period, and inaugurates the Middle Kingdom.

1483 - Queen Hatshepsut dies, succeeded by her stepson Thutmose II who later leads one of most successful campaigns in Asia.

1350 - Akhenaten, who found the monotheistic cult of AtenWho is this deity?, ascends throne.

1325 - Death of Tutankhamun, the famous king whose tomb was fond intact in the Valley of the Kings.

1278 - Death of Seti I, one of the great Pharaoh builders and military campaigners.

Ramesses II, Pharaoh Triumphant
Ramesses II
Pharaoh Triumphant
1279 - 19th Dynasty Ramesses II, the mightiest of Egyptian kings, acceds to power, rules for 67 prosperous years.

1069 - The Third Intermediate Period begins. AmunWho is this deity? Priests split the country.

925 - Sheshonq, king of Egypt, marches into Palestine, defeats kingdoms of Judah and Israel.

664 - Assyrians take over Memphis and practice an overlordship of Egypt.

525 - Persian King Cambyses conquers Egypt.

343 - Egypt falls to the second Persian invasion. The last Pharaoh, Nectanebo II, falls.

Alexander conquers Egypt
332 - Alexander the Great enters Egypt and found Alexandria.

305 - Ptolemy I becomes Egypt's line to become the first of the Ptolemies family line.

30 B.C. - Anthony and Cleopatra VII commit suicide by a cobra snakebite, Egypt falls to Roman Empire.

67 A.D. - Saint Mark, the evangelist who brought Christianity to Egypt, martyrs in Alexandria.

251 - Birth of Saint Anthony, the founder of monasticism.

284 - Diocletian becomes emperor of Rome. His era saw one of greatest persecutions of Christians. Many Egyptian martyrs fall.

292 - Birth of Saint Pachomious, the founder of cenobitic monasticism

306 - Constantine the Great, the first Roman Christian emperor, ascends throne granting religious rights to citizens of the empire, including Egypt, at 313.

451 - The Church of Alexandria proclaimed heretic by the Council of Chalcedon, dividing Christianity in the Mediterranean.

619 - Persians invade Egypt for a short period of 10 years.

Arabs take Egypt
Arabs take Egypt
641 - Egypt falls to the Arabs led by commander Amr Ibn El-Ãs, ending the Byzantine presence in Egypt.

750 - Abbasid General Saleh seizes city of Al-Fustat, then capital of Egypt, ending the control of Ummayad dynasty.

868 - Ahmed ibn Tulun founds Tulunid dynasty.

935 - Mohamed ibn Toghg Al-Ikhshid founds the Ikhshidid rule.

969 - General Gawhar Al-Sekelli commands the Fatimid invasion of Egypt and founds Cairo after defeating the Ikhshidids.

970 - Fatimids found the great mosque of Al-Azhar.

996 - Fatimid Caliph Al-Aziz dies, succeeded by his 11-year old son, Al-Hakim, the so-called Mad Caliph.

1005 - Al-Hakim founds the Wisdom House (Beit Al-Hekma), as a center for learning science and theology.

1007 - A severe famine that hit Egypt.

1017 - Al-Hakim is claimed to be an incarnation of god by his vizierWhat does it mean? Darazi.

1021 - Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim disappears.

1118 - Crusaders launch their first yet unsuccessful attack on Egypt.

Saladdin, an Islamic hero
An Islamic hero
1171 - End of Shi'iteWhat does it mean? Fatimid rule by the death of the last Caliph. Few years later Saladin takes control and restores the SunniWhat does it mean? faith.

1187 - Famous battle of Hittin. Saladin seizes Jerusalem and many provinces from Crusaders.

1192 - Peace treaty between Saladin and Crusaders recognizes his gains and leave some a coastal strip of land for crusaders.

1193 - Saladin dies of fever at 55 years old.

1250 - After the death of Ayyubid Sultan Al-Saleh, his wife Shagaret Al-Dorr succeeds to defeat the invading troops of crusaders.

1250 - Shagaret El-Dorr ascends power to be the first and only female ruler in Egypt's Islamic history for only 80 days before she marries a Mamluk. Her rule marks the beginning of a new era of Mamluk rule.

1257 - Shagaret El-Dorr has her husband Aybak killed. She, herself, gets killed by Aybak's fellow Mamluks.

1258 - Monguls led by Hulegu destroy Baghdad, kill the caliph and end the Abbasid caliphate on their way to fight Mamluks of Egypt.

1260 - Mamluk Sultan Qutuz defeats Monguls in the famous battle of Ain Galout. Qutuz killed the same year by Baybars.

1272 - Baybars engage in a peace treaty with Crusaders.

1279 - Death of Baybars, one of the greatest Mamluk fighters.

1291 - Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil attacks Acre, ending the presence of Crusaders in the Holy Land.

1348 - The Black Death hits Egypt, decimating much of the population.

1382 - A Mamluk named Barquq seizes throne to inaugurate a new era of rule shifting power from Bahari Mamluks to Burgi Mamluks.

1488 - Route of Cape of Good Hope discovered, Egypt start to loose tolls levied on convoys passing through Egyptian lands.

1516 - Marj Dabek battle near Aleppo between Ottoman and Mamluk armies, Mamluks gravely defeated and their commander Sutlan El-Gouri dies in the battle.

1517 - Ottoman Sultan Selim the Grim invades Egypt and hangs Mamluk Sultan Tuman Bey II, annexing Egypt to the Ottoman Empire.

1522 - Khair Bey, a Mamluk traitor, appointed first governor of Egypt.

1768 - Attempt of independence from Ottoman control by Ali Bey the Elder.

Napoleon invades Egypt
Napoleon invades Egypt
1798 - Napoleon Bonaparte invades Egypt, British Admiral Nelson sinks the French fleet anchored in Abu Kir bay.

1801 March - French troops evacuate from Egypt ending the French expedition.

1805 - Mohamed Ali, father of modern Egypt, installed as waliWhat does it mean? of Egypt.

1807 - Britain launches unsuccessful attack against Egypt.

1811 - Mohamed Ali eliminates threat of Mamluks, slaughtering 470 in the Citadel.

1818 - Ibrahim Pacha, son of Mohamed Ali, defeats WahhabiWhat does it mean? movement in the Arabian Peninsula and seizes most of Arabia.

Republic declared

Mohamed Ali, modernizer of Egypt
Mohamed Ali
Modernizer of Egypt
1831 - Mohamed Ali begins military campaign directed against the Ottoman Porte.

1841 - "Treaty of London" clinched between Western powers, provinces taken away from Mohamed Ali control.

1848 - Abbas succeeds his grandfather, Mohamed Ali, as ruler, and one year later Mohamed Ali dies.

1863 - Said Pacha who ruled since 1854 dies, succeeded by Ismail.

1867 - Title of Egypt's viceroyWhat does it mean? changes to "KhediveWhat does it mean?," a Persian word means ruler.

1869 - Suez Canal inaugurated in a splendid ceremony.

1879 June - Ottoman Sultan deposes Khedive Ismail, his son Tawfik replaces him in post.

1882 11 July - British fleet bombards Alexandria.

1882 14 September - Cairo falls to the British occupation, one day after the defeat of nationalist Ahmed Orabi in El-Tal El-Kebir battle.

Six-day war

1892 - Khedive Tawfik dies, succeeded by his son Abbas II Helmy.

1906 - Dinshway incident happen, provokes anger of nationalists, especially Mustafa Kamel.

1908 - Mustafa Kamel, famous Egyptian nationalist, dies of tuberculosis, after forming the Nationalist Party a year earlier.

1914 - Britain overthrows Khedive Abbas Helmy and installs his uncle Hussein Kamel in preparations for the World War I.

1917 - King Fuad comes to power after the death of his brother Sultan Hussein.

Yom KippurWhat does it mean?

1919 March - People revolt over deportation of famous nationalist Saad Zagloul.

1922 - Egypt gains independence from Britain.

1936 April - King Fuad dies and succeeded by his son Farouk.

1948 - Arab countries led by Egypt attack newly born state of Israel, suffering defeat.

1952 July - Coup d'état by Free Officers deposing King Farouk.

Sadat assassinated

1953 June - Egypt proclaimed republic.

1954 - British forces start to evacuate Egypt.

Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
1956 - Nasser becomes president and nationalizes Suez Canal to raise funds for the High Dam..

1956 October - Britain, France and Israel launch the Tripartite invasion in retaliation over Nasser's Suez Canal nationalization.

1967 6 June - Israel launches the Six-Day war, seizing Sinai, West Bank, Gaza and Golan Heights.

1970 September - President Nasser dies, succeeded by Sadat.

1973 6 October - Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack against Israel.

1976 June - Formation of political party introduced.

1979 March - Camp David peace accord clinched between Egypt and Israel..

1981 6 October - Sadat assassinated by terrorists.

1981 October - Mubarak elected president by a referendum..

1995 - Mubarak escapes an assassination attempt by fundamentalists in Addis Ababa.

Some images 2004

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