3100 (?) - Narmer, unifies Upper and Lower Egypt under his
rule, and inaugurates Pharaonic dynasties.
2650 (?) - Djoser builds the first pyramid.
2600 (?) - The great pyramid builders.
2184 - Fall of Old Kingdom by the death of Pepi II and the
country plunges into the First Intermediate
1570 - Ahmose I finishes expulsion of Hyksos,
ends the Second Intermediate Period, and inaugurates the Middle
1483 - Queen Hatshepsut dies, succeeded by her stepson Thutmose
II who later leads one of most successful campaigns in Asia.
1350 - Akhenaten, who found the monotheistic cult of Aten,
1325 - Death of Tutankhamun, the famous king whose tomb
was fond intact in the Valley of the Kings.
1278 - Death of Seti I, one of the great Pharaoh builders
and military campaigners.
1279 - 19th Dynasty Ramesses II, the mightiest of Egyptian
kings, acceds to power, rules for 67 prosperous years.
1069 - The Third Intermediate Period begins. Amun
Priests split the country.
925 - Sheshonq, king of Egypt, marches into Palestine, defeats
kingdoms of Judah and Israel.
664 - Assyrians take over Memphis and practice an overlordship
525 - Persian King Cambyses conquers Egypt.
343 - Egypt falls to the second Persian invasion. The last
Pharaoh, Nectanebo II, falls.
332 - Alexander the Great enters Egypt and found Alexandria.
Alexander conquers Egypt
305 - Ptolemy I becomes Egypt's line to become the first
of the Ptolemies family line.
30 B.C. - Anthony and Cleopatra VII commit suicide by a
cobra snakebite, Egypt falls to Roman Empire.
67 A.D. - Saint Mark, the evangelist who brought Christianity
to Egypt, martyrs in Alexandria.
251 - Birth of Saint Anthony, the founder of monasticism.
284 - Diocletian becomes emperor of Rome. His era saw one
of greatest persecutions of Christians. Many Egyptian martyrs fall.
292 - Birth of Saint Pachomious, the founder of cenobitic
306 - Constantine the Great, the first Roman Christian emperor,
ascends throne granting religious rights to citizens of the empire,
including Egypt, at 313.
451 - The Church of Alexandria proclaimed heretic by the
Council of Chalcedon, dividing Christianity in the Mediterranean.
619 - Persians invade Egypt for a short period of 10 years.
641 - Egypt falls to the Arabs led by commander Amr Ibn El-Ãs,
ending the Byzantine presence in Egypt.
Arabs take Egypt
750 - Abbasid General Saleh seizes city of Al-Fustat, then
capital of Egypt, ending the control of Ummayad dynasty.
868 - Ahmed ibn Tulun founds Tulunid dynasty.
935 - Mohamed ibn Toghg Al-Ikhshid founds the Ikhshidid
969 - General Gawhar Al-Sekelli commands the Fatimid invasion
of Egypt and founds Cairo after defeating the Ikhshidids.
970 - Fatimids found the great mosque of Al-Azhar.
996 - Fatimid Caliph Al-Aziz dies, succeeded by his 11-year
old son, Al-Hakim, the so-called Mad Caliph.
1005 - Al-Hakim founds the Wisdom House (Beit Al-Hekma),
as a center for learning science and theology.
1007 - A severe famine that hit Egypt.
1017 - Al-Hakim is claimed to be an incarnation of god by
1021 - Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim disappears.
1118 - Crusaders launch their first yet unsuccessful attack
1171 - End of Shi'ite
Fatimid rule by the death of the last Caliph. Few years later Saladin
takes control and restores the Sunni
An Islamic hero
1187 - Famous battle of Hittin. Saladin seizes Jerusalem
and many provinces from Crusaders.
1192 - Peace treaty between Saladin and Crusaders recognizes
his gains and leave some a coastal strip of land for crusaders.
1193 - Saladin dies of fever at 55 years old.
1250 - After the death of Ayyubid Sultan Al-Saleh, his wife
Shagaret Al-Dorr succeeds to defeat the invading troops of crusaders.
1250 - Shagaret El-Dorr ascends power to be the first and
only female ruler in Egypt's Islamic history for only 80 days before
she marries a Mamluk. Her rule marks the beginning of a new era
of Mamluk rule.
1257 - Shagaret El-Dorr has her husband Aybak killed. She,
herself, gets killed by Aybak's fellow Mamluks.
1258 - Monguls led by Hulegu destroy Baghdad, kill the caliph
and end the Abbasid caliphate on their way to fight Mamluks of Egypt.
1260 - Mamluk Sultan Qutuz defeats Monguls in the famous
battle of Ain Galout. Qutuz killed the same year by Baybars.
1272 - Baybars engage in a peace treaty with Crusaders.
1279 - Death of Baybars, one of the greatest Mamluk fighters.
1291 - Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil attacks Acre, ending the
presence of Crusaders in the Holy Land.
1348 - The Black Death hits Egypt, decimating much of the
1382 - A Mamluk named Barquq seizes throne to inaugurate
a new era of rule shifting power from Bahari Mamluks to Burgi Mamluks.
1488 - Route of Cape of Good Hope discovered, Egypt start
to loose tolls levied on convoys passing through Egyptian lands.
1516 - Marj Dabek battle near Aleppo between Ottoman and
Mamluk armies, Mamluks gravely defeated and their commander Sutlan
El-Gouri dies in the battle.
1517 - Ottoman Sultan Selim the Grim invades Egypt and hangs
Mamluk Sultan Tuman Bey II, annexing Egypt to the Ottoman Empire.
1522 - Khair Bey, a Mamluk traitor, appointed first governor
1768 - Attempt of independence from Ottoman control by Ali
Bey the Elder.
1798 - Napoleon Bonaparte invades Egypt, British Admiral Nelson
sinks the French fleet anchored in Abu Kir bay.
Napoleon invades Egypt
1801 March - French troops evacuate from Egypt ending the
1805 - Mohamed Ali, father of modern Egypt, installed as
1807 - Britain launches unsuccessful attack against Egypt.
1811 - Mohamed Ali eliminates threat of Mamluks, slaughtering
470 in the Citadel.
1818 - Ibrahim Pacha, son of Mohamed Ali, defeats Wahhabi
movement in the Arabian Peninsula and seizes most of Arabia.
1831 - Mohamed Ali begins military campaign directed against
the Ottoman Porte.
Modernizer of Egypt
1841 - "Treaty of London" clinched between Western
powers, provinces taken away from Mohamed Ali control.
1848 - Abbas succeeds his grandfather, Mohamed Ali, as ruler,
and one year later Mohamed Ali dies.
1863 - Said Pacha who ruled since 1854 dies, succeeded
1867 - Title of Egypt's viceroy
changes to "Khedive,"
a Persian word means ruler.
1869 - Suez Canal inaugurated in a splendid ceremony.
1879 June - Ottoman Sultan deposes Khedive Ismail, his son
Tawfik replaces him in post.
1882 11 July - British fleet bombards Alexandria.
1882 14 September - Cairo falls to the British occupation,
one day after the defeat of nationalist Ahmed Orabi in El-Tal El-Kebir
1892 - Khedive Tawfik dies, succeeded by his son Abbas II
1906 - Dinshway incident happen, provokes anger of nationalists,
especially Mustafa Kamel.
1908 - Mustafa Kamel, famous Egyptian nationalist, dies
of tuberculosis, after forming the Nationalist Party a year earlier.
1914 - Britain overthrows Khedive Abbas Helmy and installs
his uncle Hussein Kamel in preparations for the World War I.
1917 - King Fuad comes to power after the death of his brother
1919 March - People revolt over deportation of famous nationalist
1922 - Egypt gains independence from Britain.
1936 April - King Fuad dies and succeeded by his son Farouk.
1948 - Arab countries led by Egypt attack newly born state
of Israel, suffering defeat.
1952 July - Coup d'état by Free Officers deposing
1953 June - Egypt proclaimed republic.
1954 - British forces start to evacuate Egypt.
1956 - Nasser becomes president and nationalizes Suez Canal
to raise funds for the High Dam..
Gamal Abdel Nasser
1956 October - Britain, France and Israel launch the Tripartite
invasion in retaliation over Nasser's Suez Canal nationalization.
1967 6 June - Israel launches the Six-Day war, seizing Sinai,
West Bank, Gaza and Golan Heights.
1970 September - President Nasser dies, succeeded by Sadat.
1973 6 October - Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack
1976 June - Formation of political party introduced.
1979 March - Camp David peace accord clinched between Egypt
1981 6 October - Sadat assassinated by terrorists.
1981 October - Mubarak elected president by a referendum..
1995 - Mubarak escapes an assassination attempt by fundamentalists
in Addis Ababa.